All segments in the database

(Click on the phonemes to see their distribution.)

Consonants

Long series:

bilabial labiodental dental alveolar postalveolar retroflex alveolo-palatal palatal velar uvular glottal
plosive , b̥ː, , pːʰ t̪ː , d̥ː, ɖː cːʰ , g̊ː, kʼː, , kːʰ qʼː, ʔː
nasal , m̥ː , n̥ː ɲː ŋː
trill , r̥ː, r̩ː
fricative βː , s̪ː, ðː , s̺ː, ʃː ʂː ɕː çː, ʝː ʁː, χː
affricate t̪s̪ː dzː, d̺z̺ː, tsː, tsːʰ, tsːʼ, t̺s̺ː dʒː, tʃː, tʃːʰ, tʃːʼ tɕː cçː kxːʰ, kxːʼ qχːʰ, qχːʼ
lateral_fricative ɬː
lateral_affricate tɬː, tɬːʰ, tɬːʼ
approximant
lateral_approximant , l̥ː, ɫː

Plain series:

bilabial labial-velar labial-palatal labiodental dental alveolar postalveolar hissing-hushing retroflex alveolo-palatal palatal palatal-velar velar uvular pharyngeal glottal epiglottal
plosive b, , , p, , , d̪ʱ, d̪̥, d̪̺, d̪̻, , t̪ʰ, t̪ʼ, t̪̻, t̺̪ d, , , , d̠ʰ, , , d̺ʱ, , t, , , , t̠ʰ, , t̺ʰ, t̺ʼ, , t̻ʰ, t’ ɖ, ɖʰ, ʈ, ʈʰ c, , , , ɟ, ɟʱ, ɟ̟ g, , , k, , k’ q, , , , ɢ, ɢ̥ ʔ, ʔʼ ʡ, ʡ’
implosive ɓ ɗ ʄ ɠ
nasal m, , , n̥̪, , n̪ʱ, n̪̩, n̺̪ n, , , , , ɳ, ɳʱ, ɳ̥ ɲ, ɲ̊, ɲ̟ ŋ, ŋʱ, ŋ̊, ŋ̟, ŋ̩ ɴ
trill r, , , , , , r̺̥ ʀ
tap ɾ̪ ɺ, ɾ, ɾ̠, ɾ̥, ɾ̺ ɽ, ɽʱ, ɽ̊
lateral_tap ɺ
fricative ɸ, β, β̞, β̩ f, , f’, v, , , s̪̻, , z̪̻, ð, ðʼ, ð̺̪, θ, θ̪, θ’ s, , , s̠̻, , , , s’, z, , , , , ʃ, ʃʰ, ʃ̞, ʃ̞ʼ, ʃ̺, ʃ’, ʒ, ʒ̊, ʒ̩, ʒ̺ ŝ, ŝʼ, ʂ, ʂʰ, ʂ̻, ʐ, ʐ̻ ɕ, ɕʰ, ɕ’, ʑ, ʑʰ ç, çʰ, ʝ, ʝ̞ ɧ x, , , ɣ, ɣ̊ ʁ, ʁ̞, χ ħ, ʕ h, ɦ ʜ, ʢ
affricate pf d̪z̪, ts̪̻, t̪s̪, t̪s̪ʰ, t̪s̪ʼ dz, dzʰ, dz̻, d̥z̥, d̺z̺, ts, tsʰ, tsʼ, ts̺, ts̻ , dʒʰ, dʒ̻ʱ, d̥ʒ̊, d̺ʒ̺, d̻ʒ̻, , tʃʰ, tʃʼ, tʃ̺, tʃ̺ʰ, tʃ̻ʰ, t̻ʃ̻ dẑ, tŝʰ, tŝʼ ɖʐ, ɖ̥ʐ̥, ɖ̻ʐ̻, ʈɽʰ, ʈʂ, ʈʂʰ, ʈʂʼ, ʈ̻ʂ̻ , dʑʰ, d̥ʑ̥, , tɕʰ, tɕʼ, t̺ɕ̺, t̺ɕ̺ʼ , cçʰ, ɟʝ xk , qχʰ, qχʼ, ɢʁ
lateral_fricative ɬ̪, ɬ̺̪ ɬ, ɬ’, ɮ, ɮʼ, ɮ̺
lateral_affricate t̪ɬ, t̪ɬʼ , tɬʰ, tɬ’
approximant w, , , , ʍ ɥ, ɥ̊ ʋ, ʋ̩ ɹ, ɹ̥, ɹ̺ ɻ, ɻ̊ j, , , ɰ
lateral_approximant , l̪ʱ, l̪̊, ɫ̪ l, , , , , , ɫ, ɫ̥, ɫ̺ ɭ, ɭ̥ ʎ, ʎ̟

Rhotic series:

bilabial velar
plosive , pʰ˞, , kʰ˞,

Velarised series:

bilabial labiodental dental alveolar
plosive , , pˠʰ d̪ˠ, t̪ˠ, t̪ˠʰ
nasal n̪ˠ
tap ɾ̪ˠ ɾˠ
fricative , ð͇ˠ , ð͇ˠ
lateral_fricative ɬˠ

Nasalised series:

retroflex palatal glottal
plosive ʔ̃
tap ɽ̃
fricative
approximant

Labialised series:

bilabial dental alveolar postalveolar hissing-hushing retroflex velar uvular pharyngeal glottal epiglottal
plosive pʰʷ, , pʼʷ t̪ʰʷ, t̪ʷ, t̪ʼʷ , tʰʷ, , tʼʷ , kʰʷ, , k’ʷ , qʷʰ, q’ʷ, ɢʷ ʔʷ, ʔʼʷ
nasal ŋʷ
fricative s̪ʷ, z̪ʷ , ʃʷ, ʒʷ ŝʷ, ŝʼʷ, ẑʷ ʂʷ, ʐʷ , ɣʷ ʁʷ, χʷ ħʷ ʜʷ, ʢʷ
affricate t̪s̪ʰʷ, t̪s̪ʷ, t̪s̪ʼʷ tsʰʷ, tsʷ, tsʼʷ d̺ʒ̺ʷ, tʃʰʷ, tʃʷ, tʃʼʷ, t̺ʃ̺ʷ dẑʷ, tŝʷ, tŝʷʰ, tŝʷʼ ʈʂʷ
lateral_fricative ɬʷ
lateral_affricate tɬʰʷ, tɬʼʷ

Palatalised series:

bilabial labial-velar labiodental dental alveolar postalveolar retroflex velar uvular glottal
plosive , , pʲʰ, pʼʲ d̪ʲ, d̪ᶻʲ, t̪ʰʲ, t̪ʲ, t̪ʼʲ, t̪ˢʲ , d̠ʲ, d̥ʲ, , tʲʰ, t̠ʲ ɖʲ, ʈʲ , , kʲʰ, kʼʲ qʰʲ, , qʼʲ
nasal , m̥ʲ n̪ʲ , n̠ʲ, n̥ʲ ɳʲ ŋʲ
trill r̪ʲ , r̥ʲ, r̺ʲ
tap ɾ̪ʲ ɾʲ, ɾ̥ʲ
fricative βʲ , s̪ʲ, z̪ʲ, ðʲ , sʲʰ, ʃʲ, ʒʲ ʂʲ, ʐʲ , ɣʲ ʁʲ, χʲ
affricate t̪s̪ʰʲ, t̪s̪ʲ, t̪s̪ʼʲ dzʲ, d̥z̥ʲ, tsʲ dʒʲ, tʃʲ
lateral_fricative ɬʲ, ɮʲ
approximant , w̜ʲ ʋʲ ɻʲ
lateral_approximant l̪ʲ , lʲʰ, l̠ʲ, l̥ʲ

Pre-aspirated series:

bilabial alveolar postalveolar retroflex alveolo-palatal palatal velar
plosive ʰp, ʱb ʰt, ʱd ʰʈ, ʱɖ ʰc, ʱɟ ʰk, ʱɡ
nasal ʱm ʱn ʱɲ ʱŋ
fricative ʱz ʱʐ
affricate ʰts, ʱdz ʰtʃ ʰtɕ, ʱdʑ
approximant ʱj
lateral_approximant ʰl̥, ʱl

Pre-nasalised series:

bilabial dental alveolar postalveolar retroflex alveolo-palatal palatal velar uvular
plosive ⁿb, ⁿp, ⁿpʰ ⁿd̪ ⁿd, ⁿt, ⁿtʰ ⁿɖ, ⁿʈʰ ⁿc, ⁿcʰ, ⁿɟ ⁿg, ⁿk, ⁿkʰ ⁿq, ⁿqʰ, ⁿɢ
fricative ⁿsʰ ⁿxʰ
affricate ⁿd̪z̪, ⁿt̪s̪ʰ ⁿdz, ⁿts, ⁿt͇s͇ʰ ⁿdʒ, ⁿtʃ, ⁿtʃʰ ⁿɖʐ, ⁿʈɽʰ, ⁿʈʂ, ⁿʈʂʰ ⁿdʑ, ⁿtɕ, ⁿtɕʰ

Pre-labialised series:

bilabial alveolar retroflex alveolo-palatal palatal
plosive ʷd ʷɟ
nasal ʷm
trill ʷr
fricative ʷz ʷʐ ʷʑ
approximant
lateral_approximant ʷl

Pharyngealised series:

bilabial labial-palatal labiodental dental alveolar postalveolar retroflex velar uvular glottal epiglottal
plosive , pʰˤ, d̪ˤ, t̪ʰˤ, t̪ʼˤ, t̪ˤ , , qˤʼ ʔˤ ʡˤ
nasal
trill
fricative s̪ˤ, z̪ˤ, ðˤ , ʒˤ ʁˤ, χˤ
affricate tsʰˤ tʃʰˤ, tʃʼˤ, tʃˤ
approximant ɥˤ ɻˤ
lateral_approximant

Breathy-voiced series:

bilabial dental alveolar postalveolar retroflex velar
plosive b̤ʱ d̪̤ʱ d̻̤ʱ ɖ̤ʱ g̤ʱ
tap ɽ̤ʱ
affricate d̤ʒ̤ʱ

Pre-glottalised series:

bilabial labial-velar alveolar postalveolar palatal velar
plosive ʼb ʼd ʼɡ
nasal ʼm ʼn ʼɲ ʼŋ
trill ˀr
fricative ʼs ʼʃ ʼɣ
approximant ʼw ʼj
lateral_approximant ˀl

Labialised & long series:

postalveolar velar uvular
plosive gːʷ, kʼːʷ, kːʷ, kːʷʰ qʼːʷ, qːʷ
fricative ʃːʷ xːʷ χːʷ
affricate tʃːʷ

Long & palatalised series:

bilabial labiodental alveolar velar
plosive bʲː, pʲː tʲː gʲː, kʲː
nasal mʲː, m̥ʲː nʲː, n̥ʲː ŋʲː
trill rʲː, r̥ʲː
fricative βʲː fʲː sʲː, zʲː xʲː
affricate tsʲː
approximant
lateral_approximant lʲː, l̥ʲː

Long & pre-aspirated series:

bilabial alveolar postalveolar velar
plosive ʰpː ʰtː ʰkː
affricate ʰtsː ʰtʃː

Retracted-tongue-root series:

glottal
plosive ʔ̙

Nasalised & palatalised series:

pharyngeal
fricative ħ̃ʲ

Labialised & palatalised series:

dental velar uvular
plosive t̪ʰʷʲ, t̪ʷʲ, t̪ʼʷʲ kʰʷʲ, kʷʲ, kʼʷʲ qʰʷʲ, qʷʲ, qʼʷʲ
fricative s̪ʷʲ χʷʲ
affricate t̪s̪ʰʷʲ, t̪s̪ʷʲ, t̪s̪ʼʷʲ

Labialised & pre-nasalised series:

uvular
plosive ⁿqʷ, ⁿqʷʰ

Labialised & pharyngealised series:

uvular
fricative χˤʷ

Palatalised & pre-aspirated series:

bilabial alveolar velar
plosive ʰpʲ ʰtʲ ʰkʲ
affricate ʰtsʲ

Palatalised & pre-nasalised series:

bilabial alveolar velar
plosive ⁿpʲʰ ⁿtʲ, ⁿtʲʰ ⁿkʲ, ⁿkʲʰ

Pre-aspirated & pre-labialised series:

alveolar retroflex alveolo-palatal velar
plosive ʰʷt ʰʷʈ ʰʷk
fricative ʰʷs, ʰʷsʰ ʰʷʂʰ ʰʷɕʰ
affricate ʰʷts ʰʷtɕ

Vowels

Long series:

front near-front central near-back back
close , i̞ː, ɨː, ɨ̞ː, ɨ̟ː, ɨ̹ː, ʉː, ʉ̟ː , u̞ː, ɯː, ɯ̽ː
near-close ɪː, ʏː ʊː
close-mid , øː ɘː, ɵː, ɵ̟ː , o̟ː, ɤː, ɤ̟ː
mid e̞ː, ø̞ː əː o̞ː, o̞̜ː
open-mid œː, œ̜ː, œ̞ː, œ̠ː, ɛː, ɛ̝ː, ɛ̞ː, ɛ̠ː ɜː, ɜ̹ː, ɞː, ɞ̜ː, ɞ̠ː ɔː, ɔ̜ː, ɔ̝ː, ɔ̞ː, ɔ̟̜ː, ʌː
near-open æː ɐː
open ɶː , a̠ː ɑː, ɑ̝ː, ɑ̟ː, ɒː

Plain series:

front near-front central near-back back
close i, , , , , y, ɨ, ɨ̞, ɨ̠, ɨ̹, ʉ, ʉ̟ u, , , , ɯ, ɯ̝, ɯ̞, ɯ̟, ɯ̽
near-close ɪ, ɪ̆, ɪ̞, ɪ̯, ʏ ɪ̈, ʊ̈ ʊ, ʊ̆, ʊ̜, ʊ̞, ʊ̯, ʊ̽
close-mid e, , , ø, ø̈ ɘ, ɘ̆, ɘ̟, ɘ̠, ɵ, ɵ̆, ɵ̟ o, , ɤ, ɤ̞̆, ɤ̟, ɤ̟̹
mid , ø̞ ə, ə̆, ə̞̆, ə̟̆ , o̞̜, ɤ̞
open-mid œ, œ̜, œ̞, œ̠, ɛ, ɛ̝, ɛ̠ ɜ, ɜ̹, ɞ, ɞ̜, ɞ̠ ɔ, ɔ̜, ɔ̝, ɔ̞, ɔ̟̜, ʌ, ʌ̟
near-open æ ɐ, ɐ̟
open ɶ a, , ɑ, ɑ̆, ɑ̝, ɑ̝̟, ɑ̞, ɑ̟, ɒ

Rhotic series:

front central back
close
close-mid ɘ˞
mid ə˞
open-mid ɛ˞ ɔ˞
open ɑ˞

Nasalised series:

front near-front central near-back back
close , ĩ̞, ĩ̯, ɨ̃, ʉ̃ , ũ̯, ɯ̃
near-close ɪ̃, ʏ̃ ʊ̃
close-mid , ø̃ ɘ̃, ɵ̃
mid ẽ̞ ə̃ õ̞
open-mid œ̃, ɛ̃ ɔ̃, ɔ̞̃, ʌ̃
near-open æ̃ ɐ̃
open ɑ̃, ɒ̃

Half-long series:

front back
close
close-mid ɤˑ
open-mid ɛˑ

Long & rhotic series:

central
mid ə˞ː
open a˞ː

Creaky-voiced series:

front near-front central near-back back
close , ɨ̞̰, ʉ̰ , ɯ̰
near-close ɪ̰ ʊ̰
close-mid , ø̰ ɵ̞̰
mid e̞̰ ə̰
open-mid ɛ̰ ɞ̜̰, ɞ̰ ɔ̟̜̰, ɔ̰
near-open æ̰
open

Breathy-voiced series:

front central back
close , ɨ̤ , ɯ̤
close-mid , ø̤ , ɤ̤
mid ə̤
open-mid ɛ̤ ɔ̤, ʌ̟̤, ʌ̤
open ɑ̟̤, ɑ̤

Pharyngealised series:

front central back
close
close-mid
mid əˤ
open-mid ɛˤ
open

Long & nasalised series:

front near-front central near-back back
close ĩː, ỹː ɨ̞̃ː, ʉ̃ː ũː, ɯ̃ː
near-close ɪ̃ː, ʏ̃ː ʊ̃ː
close-mid ẽː, ø̃ː õː
mid ẽ̞ː əː̃
open-mid œ̃ː, ɛ̃ː ɞ̜̃ː ɔ̃ː, ɔ̟̜̃ː, ɔ̜̃ː, ɔ̞̃ː
near-open æ̃ː
open ãː ɑ̃ː, ɒ̃ː

Creaky-voiced & long series:

front back
close ḭː, y̰ː ṵː, ɯ̰̽ː
open-mid œ̰ː, ɛ̰ː ɔ̰ː
open ɑ̰ː

Breathy-voiced & long series:

front central back
close i̤ː ɨ̤ː ṳː, ɯ̤ː
close-mid e̤ː o̤ː, ɤ̟̤ː, ɤ̤ː
open-mid ɛ̤ː ɔ̤ː, ʌ̤ː
open a̤ː ɑ̟̤ː, ɑ̤ː

Long & pharyngealised series:

front central near-back back
close iˤː uˤː
near-close ʊˤː
close-mid oˤː
open-mid ɔˤː, ʌˤː
open aˤː

Pharyngealised & rhotic series:

front central back
close i˞ˤ u˞ˤ
open a˞ˤ

Breathy-voiced & nasalised series:

central
open ã̤

Long & pharyngealised & rhotic series:

front back
close i˞ˤː u˞ˤː

Breathy-voiced & long & nasalised series:

front central back
close ĩ̤ː ṳ̃ː
mid ə̤̃ː
open-mid ɛ̤̃ː ɔ̤̃ː
open ã̤ː

Apical vowels:

ɿ̰, ʅ̹, ɿˠ, ʅ, ɿ, ɿ̹

Diphthongs:

ĩã, iɪ̯, ɛ̃ːi̯, , aːi, , øə, ỹœ, iu̯, ɔe, aɵ̯, ɘi, ɛʉ, , ɞe̯, ɔu, ʉu, ɤo, ai̯ː, , əːi, ɛe, , ɨi, ɤɑ, ɐu, əu̯, ãĩ, , uɑ̃, , æi, ɛu, œi, ãw̃, aːu, aːɯ, æe, ɐɪ, aɯ̃, , jɛː, ɑʊ, ɛ̯æː, , uɑ˞, ea̤, ũoː, ũĩ, ou̯, , wõː, æ̃i, ɛa̟, ɔa, ỹœː, ãj, ɛi, ɨ̤ɐ, , wɔː, ia, øɑ, , ua̟, iɛ̃, wə̃, ɯo, au̯, ɛ̤i̤, ãw, yø̞, ei̯, ai, əu, iæ̃, ɤa̤, yo, ɪ̃ɛ, ɑːi, õã, ɛɐ, ɐi, ɪ̃ə̃, iɛ̠, ɨa̠, uə̯, ɤa, e̞u̯, oa, yĩ, ɔʏ, , jaː, ei, o̯ä, wɛ̃, ɵy, uːə, ɛɰ, ɑo, ɤe, ɤj, əo, , wi, , ɑu, waː, ɔi̯, oo̯, u̠u, ʌw, u̯õ, ɪ̯a, ɔy̯ː, ʊa, õːu, o̞i̯, yœː, əɨ, ə̰ɯ̰, æu, yi̯, ji, ɨə, uːe, iu, (ɯi̯), iːə, ɪ̯ɔ, ãõ, œj, ɪ̯u̞, uw, je, , ui, ɪ̃ɛː, ai̯, oːu̯, ɔaː, øu, i̤ɐ, ae, oj, e̯ä, uɛ̃, , ʊ̈i, i̯ẽ, õj, ɤu, (i̯e̞), øɪ, uo, ɔi, oːu, , uːʌ, eu̯, jy, yi, ɨj, wã, ʉi̯, , ʊi, , ɪɛː, ɑw, əɒ, , ie, øi, æɪ̯, yə̯, ʌu, y̯ø, ɨɛ, əũ, iẽ, æːi, ɛɪ, , wɔ̃, ɔʊ̯, ɑe, aːi̯, ɨa, , o̞a, ɞʏ̯, ɛi̯, , jo, uːi, ẽj, ɯa, auː, ɨɐ, ɛ̃ũ, ʊɪ, ũã, ɐʊ, eːi, , oe, , ɔːi, we, ɔo, ʉœ̠, ao, əi, uã, ɯɪ̯, œy, eu, əɯ, ɑj, ʌj, ɑɒ, œ̃ɛ̃, i̤a, øːy̯, ju, , , õi, iˤæ, aɪ̃, , ya, ũi, ɑi, ɔu̯, ɛa, əĩ, , , əɯ̃, ou, au, ʌi, ɔ̃ʊ̯̃, ea, ṳa, eːi̯, ɯːi, ɐ̃u, u̯o, ə̃ĩ, ɯɑ, , ɜj, ɔʊ, øe, ue, oi, , joː, ə̃ũ, ue̞, jɛ̃, ui̯, æi̯, ṳɐ, ie̞, , , ʊ̯ɔ, ij, ɜi, ɒːi̯, ja, øy, , ɔɪ, ĩõ, iːɛ, ẽɪ̃, ɛo, aːu̯, , ɯ̤a, ɔi, æu̯, ɵə, ḛɪ̰, yu, ɤi, ua, øy̯, æo, uẽ, ɯi, eo, ɐi̯, ɯə, ɛu̯, , ɐ̃i, œ̞ɛ̞, iə̯, (ɯ̯ɤ̞), əi̯, a̰ɪ̰, ɘy, woː, ɪə, , , ʉɞ̠, ãũ, eɪ̃, ʊə, ɪu, oʊ̃, a̰ɯ̰, ae̯, ãɛ̃, ɪɛ, , ii, , , , , ãɪ̯ː, ɛə, æ̃ɪ̯̃, aʊ̃, ĩẽ, ũo, æːʊ, uo̞, wa, əy, juː, əʊ, ye, uoː, io

Triphthongs:

iau, jai, wei̯, jei̯, i̯uo, uɑi, jui, jau̯, juaː, wɛi, wɛi̯, uai, wæi, uəi, iɛi̯, joi, i̯ũo, iou, uei, weu̯, jau, jæi, wai, wei, jɛi, iɑu, jɛi̯